Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RL 6.1/RI 6.1
SOMETIMES AN AUTHOR doesn’t tell you exactly what’s happening, but gives you clues so you can figure it out yourself. An inference is a logical guess you make based on facts in the text plus what you already know from life. Maybe you or a friend has had a similar experience. Or maybe you read about something similar in a book or saw it in a movie. You can put the facts and personal knowledge together to figure out what’s going on and why characters act or feel the way they do.
A soaked Randy slipped inside the door and put his dripping umbrella in the corner. As he crossed the room to our table, his shoes made a squishy, squeaking sound. “What a day!” he moaned as he plopped into a chair and grabbed a menu.
The author didn’t state what the weather was like or where the people were, but you can infer the answers. Clues in the text and your own experiences help you infer that a soaked Randy and dripping umbrella indicate it’s raining outside. Randy going to a table and getting a menu helps you infer he’s in a restaurant! Some people call making an inference “reading between the lines.”
Making inferences helps good readers better understand the text. Inferring also builds readers’ interest as they continue reading to find out if their inferences were or weren’t correct. An inference chart can help you track guesses as you read. List details you find in the text, what you already know, and what you infer from them.
The text says . . .
I know . . .
So I infer that . . .
Randy is wet.
shoes squish and squeak.
he has umbrella.
you use umbrellas in rain.
you get soaked in rainstorms.
it’s raining hard.
he comes inside.
he goes to “our” table.
he grabs a menu.
restaurants have menus.
restaurants have tables.
people share tables in restaurants.
he’s in a restaurant.
Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RL 6.1/RI 6.1
AFTER YOU MAKE one or more inferences, you can draw a conclusion—a decision based on facts and inferences. Drawing a conclusion is kind of like solving a mystery. You put together clues, or facts, from the text and all the inferences you made as you read it. Then you decide what’s true. But be careful: Sometimes readers “jump to conclusions,” or make decisions, before they have all the facts.
Bo heard a classmate say she’s going to Rome on summer vacation. He knows there’s a famous city named Rome in Italy. So Bo sighs and says to a friend, “Dad says the price of gas is so high that we can’t go away this summer. I wish I were going someplace really interesting . . . like Italy!”
Did Bo have enough information to draw that conclusion? No, he could infer that she meant Italy, but his inference was wrong. He jumped to that conclusion before he had all the facts. Imagine his surprise when he later finds out the girl always spends summers in Rome, Ohio!
Now, imagine you’re the person in this story. What inferences can you make? What conclusion can you draw when you have all the facts?
I couldn’t believe it! I was set to go home and reached for my new jacket. But it was gone! I hunted for it everywhere around my locker. Suddenly I saw this kid walking out of school wearing a jacket just like mine! “Hey!” I yelled, “Wait up!”
Could you infer that the other kid took your missing jacket? Yes, but you be wrong and would be jumping to a conclusion. You need to ask questions and maybe examine the jacket. You do, and discover it looks like yours, but it’s not. But you can conclude that the other kid has really good fashion sense, like you!
Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RL 6.1
AN AUTHOR’S PURPOSE is why he or she wrote something. It might be to:
• inform readers.
Every president except George Washington has lived in the White House. However, Washington did help design the building.
• teach readers how to do something.
To do a waltz jump, take off from the outside edge of one skate, make a half turn, and land on the outside edge of the other blade.
• entertain or amuse readers.
The cat leaped just as Pam came in with a bowl of milk. Pam went down and the milk went up . . . and then down, on her head!
· persuade readers to do something.
Good citizens donate old clothes to charity. It may be hard to give up a favorite outgrown sweater, but we have needy people in our community. Why not let your old sweater keep another kid warm this winter instead of hanging it in the back of your closet?
Sometimes an author has more than one purpose, such as wanting to inform readers but be entertaining at the same time!
To identify an author’s purpose, ask yourself questions like:
Did I find out something new?
Did I learn how to do something?
How did this make me feel happy, sad, scared, or excited?
Did the author try to get me to do something or think a certain way?
Extension Activity for RL 6.1
Create a Narrative Pyramid for the Chapter. Cite textual evidence (page numbers) as you complete the pyramid.
1. Character’s Name
2. Two words describing the character
3. Three words describing the setting
4. Four words stating the problem
5. Five words describing one event from the story
6. Six words describing another event from the story
7. Seven words describing a third event
8. Eight words describing a solution to the problem
Extension Activity for RI 6.1
Select one poem from the list and write a poem based on the article. Remember to utilize textual evidence.
The ABC or alphabet poems have the first line of each line of the poem based on a section of the alphabet or all 26 letters. Usually, the ABC poems have five lines starting with A and ending with E.
Acrostic poems spell a word with the first letter of each line of the poem. The length of the lines can vary.
The ballad means "dance songs." Ballads usually tell a story, using four line quatrain stanza with an ABCB rhyme scheme where lines two and four rhyme. Some ballads have more than one quatrain.
A cinquain is a five-line poem. Line one has one word and is the title. Line two describes the title in two words. Line three uses three words to express action. Line four uses four words to express a feeling. Line five uses one word that restates the title.
A fun type of poetry to write is shape poetry or concrete poems. These types of poems take the shape of the topic of the poem. Poems can come in the shape of popsicles, umbrellas, baseballs, light bulbs, etc.
Free Verse Poem
A free verse poem means that it does not follow any rigid rules of rhyme, pattern or meter. However, a great free verse poem will have some type of rhythm. It will also use poetic devices, such as metaphors, similes, personification, onomatopoeia, etc.
The haiku is a three line poem that has 5 syllables in line one, 7 syllables in line two and, 3 syllables in line three. The lines do not rhyme. Classic haiku poetry focuses on nature.
A limerick poem is a five-line humorous poem that has a set number of syllables and a rhyme scheme. There are 10 syllables in lines one, two and five. These three lines also rhyme and have the same rhythm. In lines three and four, there are 5 to 7 syllables that have the same rhythm and rhyme. The rhyme pattern is AABBA.