Thursday, October 31, 2013

RL 6.4 - RI 6.4 Station Information (Math Conference)

Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RL 6.4
Figurative Language – Idioms, Personification, Hyperbole
AS YOU KNOW, authors use words to help readers create images in their minds. Most words are literal—they mean what they say. But sometimes authors use more creative, or figurative, language, like idioms, personification, and hyperbole.

An idiom is a group of words that doesn’t mean exactly what it says.

“That homework we had last night was a piece of cake!” Bill said. 

Does Bill mean that the teacher handed out cake for the class to eat as homework? No, of course not. “A piece of cake” means the task was easy. Look for context clues to help you figure out the meanings of idioms.

She feels down in the dumps.

She feels sad, unhappy, discouraged.
When I told them, they were all ears!
They paid attention and listened.

Don’t be such a couch potato!
Don’t be lazy, inactive.

Don’t let the cat out of the bag!
Don’t tell the secret.

Wow, that was a close shave!
A narrow escape; almost got caught.

She has a chip on her shoulder!
Is resentful, holds a grudge.

Personification gives human qualities to animals or objects.

“I cannot see in this tall grass, Moon,” cried the tiger. So Moon smiled down while Wind puffed her cheeks and blew the grass aside.

In this example, the tiger has the human ability to speak, the Moon can smile, and the Wind has human-like cheeks and a mouth. Readers relate to the actions because they share the qualities. Personification adds interest to some stories, especially fables and myths that teach lessons about life and human behavior.

Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration to make a point.

“This suitcase weighs a ton!” Ray grumbled. “No wonder my back hurts!” Does the suitcase really weigh a ton? Not likely, since a ton is 2,000 pounds! But the author wants to make the point that the suitcase is really heavy. Don’t you wonder what’s in it? The author hopes you do!

Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RL 6.4
Figurative Language – Similes and Metaphors

SIMILES AND METAPHORS are two more kinds of figurative language that authors use to add interest to their writing.

A simile compares two things by using the words like or as.

I was so embarrassed; my face was as red as a beet! How can the author compare a person’s face to a vegetable? They’re so different! True, but they are alike in one way: Both are red. Picturing this can help you visualize the character and understand his or her motives in a story.

Here are few more similes. What do they help you visualize?

You and I are as alike as two peas in a pod!
She is as quiet as a mouse.
His sadness was as unending as the waves crashing on shore.
I know I can trust him; he’s as honest as the day is long.
I can’t get her to do anything; she’s as stubborn as a mule!

A metaphor compares two things without using like or as. The text states that one thing is, or has the characteristics of, another.

The dog’s eyes were searchlights, looking for any sign of kindness. Is the author trying to get you to picture a dog with huge searchlights for eyes?

No, the author wants you to visualize a poor dog staring intently, looking for kindness from a stranger.

Here are a few more metaphors. What do you visualize with each?

Night is a curtain that eventually falls.
The quarterback is a well-maintained machine.
She is a beacon of light, guiding us home.
Strength and honor are his uniform.
Silence is an invited guest, allowing me time to think.

 Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RL 6.4
Tone & Style
AN AUTHOR SETS a purpose for writing, and then chooses words to express ideas. The words set a tone that, just like someone’s tone of voice, will convey a feeling of suspense, excitement, happiness, sadness, anger, mystery, humor, or annoyance. Choosing the right words can make a selection funny, sad, creepy, serious, mysterious, scary, or fanciful. Different parts of a selection may convey different feelings. But there should be one clear tone for the whole selection.

An author’s style is his or her distinctive way of connecting ideas. You can easily spot some authors’ styles. Like Dr. Seuss . . . everyone recognizes his rhyming and made-up words! It may not be so easy to recognize other authors’ styles until you read a few of their selections. Then you begin to spot the length and difficulty of the sentences they use and their choices of descriptive words.
Their writing may be informal or formal, friendly or bitter, fanciful or scientific, comical or dramatic, playful or serious.

The author’s tone and style create an overall mood, the feeling you get when you read the selection. For example, see how the author’s tone and style create a mysterious, frightening feeling in this scenario.

 Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RL 6.4
Multiple Meaning Words

YOU MAY ALREADY know many words that have two or more meanings. The words are called homonyms, from the Greek for “same name.” For example, the word fly is a noun that means “a small insect.”

A pesky fly kept buzzing by my ear!
But fly can also be a verb that means “to move through the air with wings.”

My brother likes to design and fly paper airplanes. So which meaning does this author use in the following quote? “I wonder what they’re talking about in that room? Boy, I wish I were a fly on the wall!” You probably figured it out. The writer wants to be a tiny insect that people wouldn’t notice as it listened to their private conversation!

Here are just a few more familiar multiple-meaning words.

Word                          Meaning 1                             Meaning 2
Bark                            growl                                      tree covering
bat                               animal                                      wooden stick
bowl                            dish                                         a sport
can                               able to                                                 container
kind                             nice                                          type
light                             lamp                                        not heavy
mean                            unkind                                     suggest
play                             have fun                                  a drama
roll                               revolve                                    a small piece of dough
story                            tale                                         one floor of a building
watch                          look                                         a timepiece

Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RI 6.4
Denotation and Connotation
EVERY WORD HAS a denotation—its definition as found in a dictionary. But many words also have a connotation—the feelings or images they bring to mind.

Denotation: scaly, legless reptile
Connotation: danger, evil, disloyal person

Even words that mean the same may have different connotations. Think about the synonyms scary and terrifying. They have similar meanings, but produce different feelings. There’s a big difference between the scary sound of the howling wind and a terrifying experience like falling off a cliff! Authors choose words to influence how readers feel. The words may suggest positive or negative connotations.

I saw many homeless people on the streets of the city. (positive)
I saw many bums on the streets of the city. (negative)

Here are a few more positive and negative connotations of words.

Word Use                                           Positive                                   Negative
Grandpa is thrifty.                               spends money wisely              cheap
She’s very strong-willed.                     determined                              stubborn
He has good self-esteem.                     Proud of work well done        conceited
She was tall and slender.                    slim                                          anorexic
He’s an eager leader.                          enthusiastic                             impatient

As you read, look for both positive and negative connotations. Ask yourself why the author wants you to get that connotation.

 Essential Skills/Concepts Related to RI 6.4
Synonyms and Antonyms
KNOWING WORDS WITH the same or opposite meaning can help you make sense of unknown words. When you read, you may come across a word you don’t know. You can often figure out its meaning by thinking of a synonym or antonym for it.

A synonym means the same, or almost the same, as the unknown word.

I felt so ungainly, tripping over my own feet as we headed to the dance floor!

Can you think of a word to replace ungainly that would still describe someone who trips? How about clumsy, awkward, or gawky? They all have about the same meaning, but doesn’t it sound more embarrassing to be ungainly than clumsy? By using ungainly, the author tells you more about the person’s feelings.

An antonym means the opposite of the unknown word.

He collapsed after another arduous day of work in the mine.

Can you think of a word to describe work that probably would NOT make someone collapse? How about easy, simple, or effortless? They all mean the opposite of hard or difficult, which is what arduous means! Also, or, and like often signal a synonym is in the text near an unknown word. But or unlike often signal an antonym. Use the synonym or antonym to help you figure out the unknown word.

Gigi thought she’d be calm once the test was over, but now she was angst-ridden about the results.

The word but in the example signals an antonym. Gigi thought she’d be calm, but she’s the opposite. So angst-ridden must mean “anxious” or “worried.”

Here are just a few words with their synonyms and antonyms. Note how a synonym may mean the same but give a different feeling to the original word.

Word                                       Synonym                                Antonym
afraid                                       petrified                                   valiant
ask                                           interrogate                               retort
begin                                       commence                               terminate
correct                                                 accurate                                   erroneous
friend                                       cohort                                      antagonist
laugh                                        chortle                                                 snivel
naughty                                    mischievous                             compliant
noisy                                        boisterous                                tranquil
repair                                       renovate                                  demolish
small                                        minuscule                                gargantuan
true                                          authentic                                  bogus

Extension Activity for RL 6.4

Create a Rap based on RL 6.4 and The Absolute Value of Mike.  Incorporate the following topics and ideas:

·         Figurative Language:
o   Idioms
o   Personification
o   Hyperbole
o   Simile
o   Metaphor

·         Tone & Style:
o   The tone of your rap should be happy, humorous, and exciting.
o   The rap should reflect your personal style.

·         Multiple-Meaning Words
o   Do not forget to include multiple-meaning words.

 Extension Activity for RI 6.4

Create a Rap based on RI 6.4 and the informational text (provided in your folder).  Incorporate the following topics and ideas:

·         Denotation and Connotation
·         Synonyms and Antonyms